Types of Inuits
There are many different types of Inuits. One being the Yupik. The Yupik occupy most of nothern Alaska and to the Far East of Siberia. These people either did not migrate from Siberia to Alaska or from Alaska to Canada and Greenland. Because of this, they created a whole different culture than the Inupiat. Mostly, they made a living of fishing the traditional seal and salmon. In the spring and summer, they went to fishing camps and enjoyed the rich reserves of salmon and cod. Then, in the winter, they would stay in a Yupik village and would have their own system to go with it. In a village there is traditionally a men's community house, called qasgiq in their language, and a women's, called ena, which was traditionally right next door. This was where everyone lived in the winter. In the men's house, festivals like dancing, singing, and storytelling would be held and the father of each boy would teach their child hunting and gathering skills (plus other life skills). In the ena, the mothers would teach their daughters how to sew, cook, and weave. The boys and girls would live with their mothers until about five years old, then they would go their seperate ways. About three to six weeks into the winter, they would switch, boys to the ena and girls to the qasgiq. During the spring, summer, and fall, families would go to fishing sites and hunting, the children still learning along the way. Although their culture differs from the others, they still share the same religion, similar language, and some of the same lifestyles.
The Inupiat were the native Inuit people of Alaska's northwestern arctic and of the Bering Strait region. There basic culture relied mostly upon hunting animals that included caribou and whale. The bowhead whale was especially important to the Inupiat. The blubber, or fat, from whales would be shared around villages so each person would get a taste of it. Although, other tribes, such as the nanamiut, were mostly nomadic and traveled in the mountains hunting for caribou until 1950. However, the Inupiat tribes located near the coast stayed in one place and hunted whale, walrus, and a little seal.
The Inuvialuit are the native Inuit of arctic Canada. They mostly hunted for caribou in the far western Canada and in central, northern, and eastern arctic they primarily hunted for seal, walrus, and the beluga whale. There were actually permanent villages, but it is unclear whether they were occupied in the winter or summer. Mostly, they were probably occupied in the summer, in which there were 60 to 300 people in one community. Hunters traveled with their families in the winter to hunt, making camp (ice igloo) near a large body of water. If successful, they would come back and share the food with the whole community. Inside a village lay sod dwellings, also known as the Alaskan sod house, an idea spread throughout all Inuit cultures. This house was made of flat rocks or stones, and was covered with sod (earth), usually built on a slope, built patly underground for warmth. Two types of respected leaders in a community were hunters and shamans. (Learn about shamans on the section titled "Customs"). Major villages included dance houses called "karigi" which was used for ceremonies and dancing. This was run by the chief called the antaniq which means "boss". He and his extended family (Son, Grandson, etc.) would operate it.
Greenland Inuit call themselves the kalaalliut, but I do not know much about them except they are now citizens of Denmark.